Balance disorders refer to alterations that affect posture and spatial orientation. The affected people may feel dizzy or feel as room is spinning around them.
Balance disorders occur when there is some alteration in the organs involved in this human sense and affect the spatial orientation, posture and the sensation of reality that has the individual who suffers.
A disturbance in balance may be habitual in certain circumstances of life, such as a boat trip or when we perform some activity in which our physical stability is altered. However, if balance disorders occur without a particular physical cause, they can be a symptom of some disease. Aging, head injuries, certain infections and certain medications can also be the cause of balance problems.
The balance organ of human is in the inner ear and is called the vestibular organ or vestibular apparatus. The eyes, skin, muscles, nerves, ear and many other organs and senses also contribute to the sense of balance. The brain and heart are two organs that are also closely related to the sense of balance, so circulation problems can cause balance problems.
Balance disorders are manifested mainly by dizziness and are often accompanied by nausea, visual disturbances and discomfort. The balance can be affected in such a way that the person can fall to the ground and lose consciousness.
Balance Disorders Causes
Balance disorders can have multiple causes. In some cases, a boat or car traveler may experience dizziness related to the movement of the transport, which are given by a disturbance of the balance.
Physical characteristics such as age, low blood pressure or lack of fluids can lead to balance disorders. If the sun has been taken a lot, it must be considered that there has been sunshine that has given rise to dizziness as a result of a disturbance in the balance. Other circumstances, such as taking certain medications can also cause balance disorders as a side effect. In addition, if you have suffered a head injury, that is likely to be the cause of the balance problem.
There are also some diseases that lead to disturbances in the balance, such as infections of the nervous tissues or of the inner ear. Infection of the inner ear can cause sudden dizziness, tinnitus or even temporary loss of hearing.
Possible causes of balance disorders are as follows:
- Drop in blood pressure and low blood pressure
- Arterial hypertension
- Lack of fluids (dehydration)
- Metabolic disorders (such as electrolyte disturbances or hypoglycemia)
- Cardiovascular diseases (such as cardiac arrhythmias)
- Head injuries (such as concussion, traumatic brain injury)
- Heat stroke
- Hyperventilation Syndrome
- Inflammation of the inner ear
- Circulatory disorders in hearing (such as hearing loss, tinnitus)
- Inflammation of balance nerves (vestibular neuritis)
- Menière’s disease (internal deloid disease)
- Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (benign positional vertigo)
- Side effects of medications (such as antibiotics or drainage)
- Poisons and stimulants
- Tumors in the ear and brain
- Neurological diseases (such as Parkinson’s, dementia, multiple sclerosis or epilepsy)
Balance Disorders Diagnosis
Clarifying the causes of balance disorders are especially important to make correct diagnosis. After a physical examination, basic examination of the nervous system will be carried out to analyze reflexes, mobility and senses. To assess the sense of balance, the doctor will perform some coordination tests.
Other tests will be necessary to verify the balance disorders. These tests include:
- Hearing Tests
- Blood test
- Electroencephalography (EEG)
- Electroneurography (ENG)
- Electromyography (EMG)
- Computed Tomography (CT)
- Magnetic resonance tomography (MRT)
- Lumbar puncture (analysis of cerebrospinal fluid)
Balance Disorders Treatment
In balance disorders, treatment is chosen according to the underlying cause. If balance disorders appear on trips by boat or car and are accompanied by severe discomfort and nausea, vestibular sedatives are usually used to treat symptoms of these mild balance disorders.
Pharmacological therapy is usually effective treatment for balance disorders. Vasoregulators improve blood circulation in the brain and also the inner ear. These types of drugs (vasoregulators) have been shown to be effective in balance disorders. Psychotropic drugs, such as diazepam also have shown favorable results in the treatment of acute vertigo. Muscle relaxants may also be effective. The choice of one type or another of therapy should be chosen according to the severity of each case.
It should not be forgotten that some balance disorders are persistent and do not respond to pharmacological treatment. In these cases, surgical interventions, such as decompression and drainage of the endolymphatic sac or section of the vestibular nerve or even labyrinectomy (excision of the vestibular apparatus) may be used. But this intervention is only indicated in severe cases.