Age and an unhealthy lifestyle cause blood vessels to lose elasticity and cause them to narrow. The consequence is that circulatory disorders appear suddenly or in the framework of arteriosclerosis. However, circulatory disorders can be prevented.
A circulatory disorder may appear suddenly (acute) or very slowly (chronic). Disorders can affect many areas of the body: Circulatory disorders of the extremities (arms or legs, sometimes just hands or fingers or toes) are common. Similarly, circulatory disorders can cause different symptoms. Pain often occurs in the corresponding areas; Insufficiently irrigated areas may be depleted or even die.
Among the most frequent diseases that can be accompanied by circulatory disorders are intermittent claudication or shop window disease and coronary heart disease. Coronary heart disease is characterized by insufficient irrigation of the myocardium.
Circulatory disorders can be caused by different causes such as the following:
- There are factors such as smoking, high blood pressure, increased cholesterol or diabetes mellitus that increase the risk of developing circulatory disorders
The treatment of circulatory disorders pursues two objectives:
- Mitigate the discomfort caused by the pathology
- Avoid underlying vascular disease
If this is achieved, its influence will be decisive in the subsequent evolution of circulatory disorders. In the worst case, the consequence may be a myocardial infarction, a stroke or loss of limb. Therefore, it is important to minimize the likelihood of a circulatory disorder with sufficient physical exercise, a balanced diet and renunciation of nicotine.
Circulatory disorders are obstructions of the blood flow by contracted or obstructed arteries, which produces a deficient supply of blood rich in oxygen and nutritious substances to the area of the affected body. Good circulation is necessary to supply sufficient oxygen to the organs and tissues. On the other hand, the blood absorbs substances and supplies them so that the organs and tissues can work optimally. The blood carries other substances, such as carbon dioxide from the organs. The basic slogan is the less oxygen an organ receives, the lower its performance. The ability of cells to survive without oxygen varies from organ to organ, so a massive circulatory disorder also has different consequences: while the brain only survives a few minutes without oxygen, the kidneys and liver survive three to four hours.
Circulatory disorders show a higher frequency as the age advances. Among people aged 60 to 70 the percentage is 10%.
Men suffer four times more circulatory disorders than women (appearing in them about 10 years earlier than in women) affect mainly the legs and more rarely the arms.
Circulatory Disorders Causes
Circulatory disorders can have different causes, such as the following:
- Inflammation of blood vessels (vasculitis)
On the other hand, there are different risk factors that favor the onset of vascular diseases. Among the possible causes for an increased risk of developing circulatory disorder are the following:
- Arterial hypertension
- Increased blood fat values
- Mellitus diabetes
- Being overweight, doing little exercise and eating unhealthy foods can be causes of circulatory disorders
Among the most common causes of circulatory disorders is atherosclerosis. Its incidence increases as the age of people advances. Atherosclerosis causes thickening and loss of elasticity of the blood vessels that carry blood from the heart.
There are certain areas especially affected such as vascular bifurcations due to the flow conditions in the arteries. In the internal vascular wall (endothelium) tiny lesions occur that activate the immune system, similar to what happens with a wound on the skin.
As a result of complicated biochemical processes, deposits in the internal vascular wall increase which tighten the diameter of blood vessels. In slow-moving circulatory disorders, the blood supply is initially assumed by smaller, previously insignificant blood vessels. It is the so-called collateral circulation. For this reason, the discomforts appear later.
One of the causes of circulatory disorders is embolism. When a vessel suddenly clogs, this alters the circulation or precludes it. In the embolism, obstructed material blocks a blood vessel. It may be a blood clot (thrombosis), amniotic fluid and may be parts of tumor tissue or even air.
Inflammation of blood vessels (vasculitis)
Rarely, there are alterations of the blood vessels with the consequent circulatory disorders as a result of inflammation of the blood vessels (vasculitis). The causes of an inflamed vessel are probably processes in which the immune system acts against the body itself (autoimmune processes).
Circulatory Disorders Symptoms
Circulatory disorders are manifested by different symptoms depending on their range and where they occur.
The typical symptoms of circulatory disorders are:
- Paleness and cold
- Paresthesia, numbness
- Muscle pain, paralysis
Chronic circulatory disorders can be classified into four stages:
Stage I: In the first stage of thromboangiitis obliterans, alterations in the vessels do not cause any discomfort.
Stage II: In the second stage, those affected feel pain with the effort, for example when walking. At rest, the pains go away. If the affected can walk more than 150 meters without pain, we are facing stage II. If they walk less than 150 meters, it is stage III.
Stage III: In the third stage, the circulatory disorder is so intense that the affected person also feels pain at rest, especially when placing the legs up or lying down. When sitting, the circulation of the legs returns to be better by the effect of the gravity.
Stage IV: Circulatory disorders are already so severe that tissue damage, necrosis or gangrene appear. In the advanced stage, there is even critical ischemia.
Chronic circulatory disorders almost always affect both legs. Diabetics have usually damaged nerves, those affected do not feel pain for a long time. Precisely for this reason, diabetics are not diagnosed with thromboangiitis obliterans until they are at an advanced stage.