Mononucleosis Symptoms Causes and Treatment Mononucleosis Symptoms Causes and Treatment

Mononucleosis Symptoms and Treatment

What is MononucleosisMononucleosis is also known as glandular fever or EBV infection. It is caused by Epstein-Barr virus. Typical symptoms include fever and lymphadenopathy. Mononucleosis primarily affects adolescents and young adults. Among the adults, everyone has almost an infection with the Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV). After an EBV infection,people usually have  a life-long immunity aganist the virus and can’t be infected again with mononucleosis.

Epstein-Barr Virus is mainly transmitted through saliva.That is why,it is called ‘’ kiss disease’’. Mononucleosis usually causes symptoms such as severe sore throat, difficulty swallowing and fever. The tonsils and the lymph nodes in the neck region swell strongly. Sufferers also feel tired and exhausted.

Doctor usually recognizes mononucleosis based on symptoms and also confirm EBV infection with a blood test, for example, through the detection of antibodies to the Epstein-Barr virus in the blood.

Treatment of mononucleosis is primarily depends on people to protect themselves and get plenty of rest and sleep.It usually takes about two to three weeks until body fights the virus infection. Mononucleosis sometimes become chronic .People who are affected may suffer for months with fever.

click here What is Mononucleosis Definition ?

Mononucleosis (glandular fever, EBV infection) is a disease of the lymphatic tissue which runs mostly harmless. Epstein-Barr Virus is the main trigger of the disease.If someone had mononucleosis once, can not be infected again with the Epstein-Barr virus.

The name of the disease is due to the German internist and pediatrician Emil Pfeiffer (1846-1921).He first described disease in 1889. Pfeiffer has called disease as ‘’ glandular fever”.Two of the main symptoms inspired him for the name were :

  • Swollen lymph nodes
  • Fever

follow url Frequency

Mononucleosis occurs mainly in young people between 15 and 30 years. Almost everyone in the population has infected with the Epstein-Barr Virus up to 30 years.

follow link Mononucleosis (Glandular fever) CausesMononucleosis (Glandular fever) Causes

Cause of mononucleosis is an infection with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) which belongs to the herpes virus family. Epstein-Barr Virus mainly transmits via the saliva in the mouth-to-mouth contact.Therefore, mononucleosis is also known as’’kissing disease’’.

Viruses arrive with the saliva in the mouth and finally ariive in cells of the mouth and throat. They mainly breed in the epithelial cells of the parotid gland, mouth and tongue.

During the acute phase of infection, Epstein-Barr Virus also infect the tonsils and infect the B lymphocytes. B-lymphocytes are cells of the lymphatic system and immune system of the body. B-lymphocytes recognize and combat usually pathogens that enter the body.

However, Epstein-Barr virus alters the properties of the B-lymphocytes: Viruses cause lymphocytes to divide and multiply. Make also sure that the B lymphocytes produce specific antibodies (known as heterophilic antibodies).

The modified B-lymphocytes in the body spread via the lymphatic and blood circulation. So, they reach the lymph nodes and internal organs such as the liver and spleen. B lymphocytes are certain substances that are responsible for swelling and enlarging of the organs.

If the immune system is not weakened by HIV or organ transplants , body combats with infected B lymphocytes by using other immune cells of the body and overcomes the disease by itself within a few weeks (usually two or three).

follow url Mononucleosis (Glandular fever) Symptoms

Mononucleosis can be understood with noticeable symptoms.First of all, strong sore throat and difficulty swallowing appears in patients. Then other symptoms may occur, such as:

  • Fatigue
  • Exhaustion
  • Weakness
  • Headache
  • Body aches
  • Stomach pain
  • Swollen spleen
  • Swollen lymph nodes, especially in the neck area
  • Swollen tonsils with whitish grey surface Fever

Throughout the course of the disease, many sufferers have high fever. Swollen lymph nodesMononucleosis (Glandular fever) Symptoms

Mononucleosis shows typical symptoms of the lymph nodes: These swell at various points of the body. In particular, the lymph nodes in the neck may partially grow to the size of hazelnut and take different consistency.You feel it as hard or soft spongy. Enlarged lymph nodes are also found in the chest or in the abdominal cavity. The enlarged lymph nodes in the neck are often seen from the outside as swelling.

go site Swollen tonsils

After the swelling of the lymph nodes, tonsillitis develop in about eight out of ten patients. The following symptoms occur:

  • High red tonsils (tonsils) swollen, often with grey-white surface
  • Reddened throat / palate
  • Enlarged Spleen

enter site Rare Symptoms

Mononucleosis rarely is manifested by symptoms such as:

partnervermittlung eifelherz Liver enlargement: In about two out of ten cases, sufferers complain of tenderness in the right upper abdomen and sometimes the skin becomes yellow (is called Jaundice). The liver values in the blood increase.

buy Orlistat 120 mg no prescription Rash: Rash occurs inless than one in ten sufferers.Skin changes in different ways: it developS little redness or bleeding into the skin. Lyell’s syndrome: During the disease, certain antibiotics can be used for treatment.Some patients can show allergic reactions to these antibiotics which can trigger Lyell’s syndrome. Lyell syndrome can  infest  internal organs and may cause life threatening results.

here Mononucleosis in children: If an infection with Epstein-Barr Virus appear in early childhood, children usually have no symptoms. Occasionally, there will be cold-like symptoms such as cough, sore throat and nausea.

Mononucleosis in elderly: Mononucleosis often show symptoms such as:

  • Fever
  • Exhaustion
  • Body aches

Mononucleosis DiagnosisMononucleosis Diagnosis

Physician often recognizes suspicious mononucleosis based on symptoms. A reliable diagnosis can be done by blood values. For symptoms such as fever, swollen lymph nodes, and tonsillitis, and fatigue can also occur in connection with other diseases, such as a disease caused by bacteria tonsillitis.

Detection of specific antibodies (heterophile antibodies) against the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the blood shows the evidence of mononucleosis.

Mononucleosis Treatment

There are no casual treatments for mononucleosis.Treatment is usually not necessary.Because body fight with infection. Plenty of rest and sleep promote the self-healing process – the individual should take care of theirself physically.

Analgesics from the group of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen can alleviate the symptoms for pain or fever. Antibiotics (as doxycycline) are only attached to the treatment, if EBV infection is caused by bacterial infection.

Mononucleosis Process and Prognosis

Mononucleosis usually takes an uncomplicated course. The viral infection usually heals in about two to three weeks by itself and without consequences.


Mononucleosis can lead to complications in rare cases. Complications especially occur when immune system is weakened.

The potential complications can affect different organs:

  • Pericardium or heart muscle can be inflamed.
  • Breathing may be obstructed by swelling of the lymph nodes by lung inflammation.
  • Complications in the brain manifest themselves as brain inflammation (encephalitis) or of an additional meningeal inflammation (meningoencephalitis).
  • Tonsils can be enlarged and it may be necessary to remove the tonsils (tonsillectomy).
  • Due to a temporary restriction of the immune response, additional infections can occur with bacteria or viruses.
  • In very rare cases, it can cause a tear of the enlarged spleen.
  • In the case of splenic rupture, surgery must be perfomed immediately.
  • In people with immunodeficiencies such as with HIV infection, a suppressed immune system (immunosuppression) after organ transplantation and congenital immunodeficiencies which are called lymphomas can develop.
  • In blood, the number following cells may decrease:
  • Red blood cells (known as anemia)
  • White blood cells (known as leucopenia)
  • Platelets (known as Thrombocytopenia)

Chronic Process

Mononucleosis may also run chronic. Sometimes fatigue and fever can take several months without the real cause is detected.

How to Prevent Mononucleosis

You can prevent mononucleosis by avoiding contact with people who are acutely ill with mononucleosis. In particular, you should be careful to avoid contact with saliva.

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