What Are the Health Risks of Obesity?
Overweight and obesity frequently occur in children and adolescents.Therefore, this development is worrying because obesity severely limits the quality of life and can lead to serious health damage.
Among the possible consequences of severe overweight and obesity include ; diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia (increased cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood) and cardiovascular diseases. If these factors get together, this is called’’metabolic syndrome’’. Accordingly, obesity also affects life expectancy.
If 40-year-old people who are overweight or obese, lifetime shortenes by 3 to 6 years.Even severe obesity cost up to 20 years of life. In addition, smoking and alcohol in obesiy is the most common cause of illness and reason the death.
The good news is;People who are overweight or obese can significantly reduce their body weight and reduce the risks of associated with obesity disorders and complications.
A combination of diet therapy, exercise therapy and behavioral therapy is advisable for fighting aganist obesity or overweight. Only in special cases, drug or surgery (obesity surgery) can be obligation. In order to fight obesity or overweight with children in long-term success : it is also important that parents (family or caregivers) are closely involved in the treatment (is called’’ Family based therapy’’).
Obesity is a chronic disease which accumulates more adipose tissue than normal in the body. Obesity is the transition from normal weight to overweight.
It is clearly defined what overweight and obesity mean.IBM(body mass index) is used to define the obesity and overweight which body weight in kilograms and it is divided by height in meters to serve square results.
Obesity increase the risks of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. In order to assess an individual’s risk,it is necessary to determine fat distribution in the body.There is one simple way to estimate the belly fat with waist circumference: Waist circumference is greater than 80 centimeters in women or more than 94 centimeters in men is risky for both.
From a circumference of 88 centimeters in females and 102 centimeters in men is (abdominal obesity) significantly increased risk for metabolic or cardiovascular disease.
Obesity occur internationally and especially in the western industrialized countries with great frequency, with the number of new cases in decades is increasing steadily.
While both sexes are affected equally from obesity. Pre-obese is generally more common than in women than men: 29 percent of women and 43.8 percent of men are overweight. Children gains weight and become obese for years and this case became common major social problem.
What are the causes of Obesity?
Obesity and overweight have their roots in high power supply: The body weight increases because the body gets more energy in the form of calories than it can consume. A meal contains too much fat and too many carbohydrates and the body can not break down the fats enough – instead, store the excess fat in the fat cells. At the same time, the number and sensitivity of insulin receptors (“Insulin receptors decreases with increasing Obesity”) in the fat tissue cause the following effects:
The fat cells respond less well to the hormone insulin that is essential to the control of blood sugar (glucose) is involved. Thus, they can not adequately exploit the rising blood sugar by eating.The result is: hunger increases.
Certain hormones, physical activity and the amount of food have a decisive influence on the size and number of fat cells.For example, Cortisone increases the loading of the fat cells, while male sex hormones (is called ‘’Androgens’’) reduce the fat cell count without affecting the cell volume. The fat cell size decreases by famine conditions and physical exercise. In adulthood, it seems almost impossible to be able to influence the number of fat cells in contrast to their fat content. Therefore, the treatment of obesity and overweight is often very difficult and can be successful in the long term only by basic changes in lifestyle.
There are several factors which can cause obesity.
These factors are ;
1- Eating behavior: People often take significantly more calories than necessary to meet their energy needs. The reason for this is that the ingested food contains too many fats and carbohydrates and too little fiber. Many people also underestimate how much their drinks (such as fruit juices or beer) contain energy. . In addition, some overweight people eat more often and especially faster than normal people. Such disturbed eating behavior plays an important role in the development of overweight and obesity. Because: When food intake stretches the stomach, body emits impulses via nerve to the brain that induce satiety.People who eat fast feels satisfied when they eat more than required.
2- Lack of physical activity: Lack of exercise is in modern society is a crucial factor for the development of obesity and overweight: Many people have to move only during their school or when working hard.But people spend a lot of their free time sitting – for example, on the computer or watching television.This is their low energy consumption.
3- Psychological factors: Mental imbalance, anger, anxiety, stress or boredom can contribute to the development of overweight and obesity, these are often responsible for a disturbed eating behavior.
4- Hereditary causes: In many families obesity and overweight are more common than others because hereditary causes play a major role in these cases.
In addition to genetic predisposition, parents pass on their bad eating habits to the children in some families.
5- Drugs: Glucocorticoids, birth control pills, antidiabetics, antidepressants or antipsychotics – increase appetite and can lead to increased food intake.
6-Hormonal disorders: On the causes of overweight and obesity may be involved with certain diseases which are characterized by a disturbed hormonal balance. For example, may be partly responsible hypothyroidism (hypothyroidism) or Cushing’s syndrome.
What are the Obesity Symptoms ?
Obesity can cause various symptoms. The consequences of being overweight does not always remain only on the body, but it can also affect the mental state and have an impact on social life.
1- Reduced capacity:People with obesity and overweight are less physically resilient. Distinguishing symptoms for lower exercise capacity are rapid fatigue and sometimes shortness of breath during physical exertion.
2-Sweat:Typical of obesity and overweight increases sweating.
3-Joint pain :People who are obese often have joint problems. Permanent obesity leads to overloading on the joints, especially in the lower spine, in the hip joints , in knee and in ankle joints. The consequences of obesity can cause premature abrasion and tear (osteoarthritis) with pain in the affected joints.
4-Psychosocial consequences :Obesity doesn’t only cause physical symptoms and it often causes mental and social (psychosocial) consequences. The consequences are depression, anger, anxiety, stress or boredom.
It is very easy to diagnose obesity. Diagnosis is performed by providing on the scale and with body mass index (BMI) to calculate and measure the waist circumference.People who have a BMI of 30 or more is obese. It is advisable to reduce the body weight to minimize the risk of complications. This is best to discuss with your doctor.
For the medical diagnosis of obesity is detailed information on medical history and previous habits (diet, eating habits, family and professional environment, physical activities, etc.) are important and will be needed an appropriate treatment plan.
This is followed by various studies such as blood analysis, blood pressure measurement, ECG or ultrasound (sonography) of the gallbladder and liver.Then it is determined if there there are causes of the existing obesity.
Before tackle your obesity, it is important to stake out your goal in a realistic way : it’s not only about losing weight in the treatment. The aim is mainly to stabilize the body weight on the actual phase of weight loss in the long term.It is not important lose weight faster in the treatment.It is recommended to lose weight gradually. At any stage of the treatment of obesity is to improve the quality of life in the foreground.
Without cooperation and motivation , it is impossible to be successful in obesity treatment.Therefore, it is important that you obtain comprehensive information on obesity and successful treatment concepts. To combat obesity successfully in children, it is necessary that parents (or family or caregivers) involve the same extent in the treatment (is called’’ Family based therapy’’). For young people who are overweight or obese, this is not necessarily true. Because with increasing age of children influence of the family decreases.
In any case, it is advisable is a combination of diet therapy, exercise therapy and behavioral therapy during heavy overweight and obesity. In particularly serious cases of obesity are targeted treatment programs under stationary conditions or in suitable rehabilitation facilities. Under special circumstances, medication or surgery can also help to combat obesity.
Proper nutrition is essential for a successful in obesity treatment. However, a diet therapy does not necessarily mean as a strict diet. Rather, it is important that the diet is balanced and how much you eat.
Exercise is an important part of obesity treatment.If you increase your physical activity,your energy consumption increases which significantly contributes to reduce the body weight and to stabilize body.
An additional energy consumption of at least 1200 to 1800 kilocalories (kcal) per week is required. This can only be reached by more than 2.5 hours of exercise per week in addition to the previous activities.
Strength training alone is not very effective to reduce the weight. Endurance sports such as walking, hiking, jogging, swimming or cycling are particularly suitable for obesity. Basically, it is important that your bones, joints, discs and so on do not strain too much during exercise. Your personal preferences for certain sports or types of movement can influence the selection of the movement therapy. It is important that you have fun on the chosen type, as they will be regularly part of your life in future.
Behavioral therapy is useful for obesity and overweight. It is a major goal of behavioral therapy is to learn slowly and carefully eat. Many overweight people eat too fast, so that the feeling of fullness only sets when they have actually received more food than necessary. You can observe your own eating and drinking habits , for example by holding it in a food diary. You can find out which factors interfere in your eating habits and trigger your food cravings. Controlled food can help to avoid such triggers in the future.
There are different surgical procedures available in obesity treatment. Obesity surgery is contemplated when all other treatment methods have failed.
In terms of an upper limit age does not apply to the obesity surgery. However, it should be noted that operations from the age of about 60 years are associated with a higher risk, For over 18 years old surgery in obesity is eligible only in exceptional cases.
The most common methods of bariatric surgery is gastric reduction, for example by an adjustable gastric band. This reduction of the stomach causes you only can take small food portions. At extremely high obesity (BMI over 55 kg / m2) there is the possibility during surgery to reroute the small intestine and to create a ‘’gastric bypass’’.
Before you have obesity surgery operational risk must be considered: There can be significant long-term effects. Among other things, a stomach stapling or gastric bypass can trigger the following disorders:
Disorders of the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins, fat and protein
- Disorders of fluid and electrolyte balance
- Fatty stools
- Increased intake of oxalate
- Increased risk of kidney stones
For this reason, obesity surgery is recommended only in exceptional cases.
Each method of obesity surgery requires a consistent treatment over mostly several years in order to ensure a long-term success of the treatment and detected complications can be prevented in time.
The operative liposuction (liposuction) is not one of the measures of obesity surgery and is also not recommended for long-term treatment of obesity.
Obesity can strongly be influence in its course: In addition to smoking and excessive alcohol consumption too high are most common triggers for diseases and deaths that could be avoided by consistently switching off the risk factors.
A reduction in body weight in obesity contrast brings significant advantages:
1- It reduces of the development of diabetes mellitus type II by more than 30 percent.
2- It reduces of the development of malignant tumors by more than 40 percent.
3- It reduces the risk for the development of chronic hypertension.
An obesity with a BMI of 30 kg / m2 or more, increases the risk of various diseases and possible result in the further course the following complications:
1- Diabetes mellitus
2- Obesity and overweight can cause more metabolic disorders. Frequent complications of overweight and obesity are changes in lipid metabolism: First, the concentration of LDL increases. LDL is particularly rich in cholesterol and promotes damage to the blood vessel walls by calcification (known. Atherosclerosis).
3- HDL, which is responsible for the removal of cholesterol from the body tissue in the liver decreases.
4- The consequences of chronically elevated levels of blood lipids are fatty degeneration of the liver (is called’’ Fatty liver’’) and the formation of gallstones.
5- In addition to lipid metabolism disorders overweight and obesity can cause interference in the metabolism in which the concentration of uric acid increases in the blood (known as hyperuricemia).Then it can develop gout.
6- Obesity and overweight may also be responsible for cardiovascular disease: Obesity cause a heavy burden on the cardiovascular system. In addition, damage to other complications of obesity – such as diabetes mellitus and disorders in fat metabolism – the blood vessels (arteriosclerosis through) can contribute to the development of:
- High blood pressure,
- Stroke or
- Heart disease (such as coronary heart disease or angina or heart failure)
7- Furthermore , obesity can lead to lung diseases: Large fat deposits interfere normal breathing mechanism. The consequences are shortness of breath (dyspnea) and chronic lack of oxygen (cyanosis). Sleep apnea syndrome arises during sleep. Heavy snoring associated with apnea lead to constant interruptions of sleep. That is why , affected people are very tired and exhausted.
8- In addition, obesity and overweight can lead to tumors. Who is overweight or obese, has an increased risk of developing malignant tumors in the following areas:
- Bowel (colon, rectum)
- Gastrointestinal disease
9- More than 35 percent of obese women develop biliary tract disease – especially inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis) and gallstones (cholelithiasis).
How to Prevent Obesity
If you want to prevent obesity, you need a healthy lifestyle with regular exercise and regular meals.
It’s always better to control body weight and regular countermeasures early in mild weight gain because the treatment of obesity is becoming difficult with increasing duration and intensity. In some cases it is not possible to cure of obesity by lowering body weight.
People who have lack of exercise can not maintain their weight.Therefore , any form of additional movement is useful when you want to prevent overweight and obesity in principal.