What Causes Vomiting?

Vomiting is expulsion of the contents of the stomach through the mouth. Vomiting is usually accompanied by nausea and by general malaise.

Vomiting can have different causes from physical to psychological. Center of the vomitting is found in the brain. Vomiting can have very different origins and these stimuli reach the spinal bulb and produce the nausea that causes vomiting.

According to the characteristics and composition of the vomitting, we will be faced with different types that can give us data about the causes. Vomiting may also contain blood.

It is important to know the causes of vomiting and it is important to be able to carry out an appropriate treatment. In most cases, it will be enough to take care of the stomach for some days with rest and light food. But if we are facing other types of more severe vomiting with longer duration, it may be necessary to resort to drug treatment. Oral anti-vomiting medications (antiemetics) can be expelled by the patient through vomiting. Therefore, these medications can be administered intravenously or in the form of suppositories. It is very important for the doctor that patient has intense and persistent vomiting with blood.

Some vomiting conditions are normal with our life: In infancy, it is very common that vomiting is the result of a gastric infection. In children, 40% of stomach problems are the responsibility of rotavirus. As for the female population, vomiting is common during the first weeks of pregnancy.

With these data in mind, a physical examination and a blood test are often sufficient to diagnose the cause of vomiting. Otherwise, the doctor may revert to other types of tests, such as x-rays, ultrasound or gastroscopy. It is also advisable to carry out the appropriate tests to ensure that vomiting is not a result of food intolerance.


Vomiting Causes

The causes of vomiting can be various. There are several factors that trigger the center of vomiting in the brain and cause nausea and vomiting.

There are several causes of vomiting. You can read causes of vomiting at the following:

Diseases of the digestive tract

  • Gastrointestinal diseases
  • Food Poisoning
  • Excessive consumption of alcohol and other toxic substances
  • Botulism
  • Salmonellosis
  • Food allergies
  • Inflammation of the gastric mucosa (gastritis)
  • Stomach ulcer and duodenal ulcer
  • Diseases of the esophagus, such as esophagitis
  • Gastroesophageal reflux
  • Inflammation of the appendix (appendicitis)
  • Biliary diseases (such as cholecystitis)
  • Pancreatic diseases (such as pancreatitis)
  • Diseases of the liver (such as hepatitis)
  • Intestinal occlusion

Psychological Factors

  • Irritated stomach (dyspepsia nervosa)
  • Irritated bowel
  • Psychogenic vomiting

Eating Disorders With Vomiting

  • Bulimia
  • Anorexia nervosa

Vomiting causes which are originated in the brain and in the head

  • Head injuries (such as concussion)
  • Migraine
  • Too much heat, sunshine
  • Inflammation of the brain (encephalitis)
  • Inflammation of the meninges (meningitis)
  • Brain tumors

Vomiting causes which are originated in the area of ​​the eyes and ears

  • Glaucoma
  • Meniere’s disease (affects the inner ear)

Gynecological Causes

  • Menstruation problems
  • Pregnancy

Vomiting causes whih are originated in other organs

  • Cystitis
  • Infection of the renal pelvis (pyelonephritis)
  • Myocardial infarction
  • Metabolic disorders or as a side effect of some medications
  • During a chemotherapy treatment

Vomiting Diagnosis

It is important to make a good diagnosis of vomiting. When the vomiting is very strong, persistent and with blood, you must go to the doctor immediately to make a diagnosis of the disease. In order to find out the cause, the doctor will start asking some important questions.

The practitioner will want to know what the patient has eaten for days and what is the last thing patient has eaten today. It is also important to know if patient is taking medication. If patient is a woman, it is important to know when she had her last menstrual period. These and other information will allow the doctor to obtain important clues as to the cause of the nausea and vomiting that afflict the patient.

To make an accurate diagnosis of vomiting, a physical examination and a blood test are necessary in some cases. In some cases, x-rays, ultrasound, endoscopy of the esophagus and stomach (gastroendoscopy) or colon (colonoscopy) may be necessary, as well as special tests to detect a Possible food intolerance.


How to Treat Vomiting

Treatment for vomiting is related to treat the causes which have caused this symptom. In case of vomiting for over a long period of time, it is important to rebalance the accounted loss of fluids and minerals with appropriate treatment.

If the patient vomits what he has just drunk, he will need an intravenous infusion of fluids and electrolytes. In the case of mild vomiting, for example as a result of a gastrointestinal infection, it is usually sufficient to take care of the stomach for a few days. Drinking infusions of fennel and chamomile, water, easily digestible food and plenty of rest is usually the most effective treatment against nausea and vomiting in these cases.

Medications against vomiting and nausea are called antiemetics. If these medications are vomited, they can be applied in the form of suppositories and even as an intravenous infusion. In case of dizziness, you can self medicate with H1 antihistamines (dimenhydrinate, diphenhydramine), however, do not forget that some preparations against nausea and vomiting need a prescription. Here psychoactive drugs with antiemetic (neuroleptic) effects prokinetics or serotonin (5HT3) antagonists. Also, neurokinin 1 receptor antagonists may be helpful, in combination with serotonin and steroid antagonists.

In addition, there are phytonutrient remedies that also help against vomiting, such as chamomile, fennel, cumin or mint.

Above all, if the emesis has been persisting for a long time and is accompanied by hematemesis (vomiting with blood), it should be consulted immediately with the doctor.

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