Amaurosis Symptoms and Treatment
Amaurosis occurs when the eye can not perceive light. Various diseases are eligible as a cause of amaurosis. Accordingly, other symptoms may occur depending on the underlying disease.
The technical term of Amaurosis refers to blindness, inability of a sensation of light. This corresponds to the scientific definition of blindness.
Occurrence of Amaurosis
The incidence of blindness varies by region of the world. In Europe, about one in a thousand inhabitants is blind. In developing countries, the proportion is higher, because here various infectious diseases threaten eyesight: trachoma ( bacterial eye infection) in trachoma areas blind up to four percent of the population, in areas where onchocerciasis (a parasitic disease) even more than 20 percent.
Two diseases that lead to amaurosis should be considered in addition, mainly:
Leber’s congenital amaurosis (Amaurosis congenita)
A Patient who is suffering from Amaurosis sees nothing more on the affected eye. Depending on the cause of the Amaurosis other various symptoms can occur.
Symptoms of amaurosis fugax:If somebody has amaurosis fugax,will suddenly be blind for a few minutes especially in one eye.Pain doesnt occur in this case. This temporary blindness can be accompanied with the harbinger of a stroke and other neurological deficits,suc as;
- Ahalf-side paralysis
- Another possiblereason for Amaurosis fugax are heart problems
- High blood pressure
Symptoms of Leber’s congenital amaurosis:
Leber’s congenital amauros is amaurosis is a blindness on both eyes from birth or develops within the first year. In some cases, a small part of the visual field is maintained, so that patients can see through appropriate aids for the blind.
Sometimes affected children press their fingers on their eyes because they least perceive flashes or light. In addition, patients often suffer from a nystagmus and hyperopia . The Leber’s congenital amaurosis may also be associated with a cataract (clouding of the eye lens) or keratoconus (bulging of the cornea of the eye).
Amaurosis Causes and Risk Factors
There are various diseases that can underlie Amaurosis.There are also variable risk factors. The most common causes of blindness in World are ;
- Diabetes mellitus (diabetic retinopathy)
- Age-related macular degeneration (destruction of vision on the retina)
- Glaucoma (glaucoma)
- Inflammation (uveitis)
- Retinal detachment
Apart from that there are specific reasons that can lead to various kinds of amaurosis. These cases are described below.
Emergence of amaurosis fugax : If blood flow is disturbed for a short time to the retina, a fleeting blindness occurs. According to the cause of amaurosis fugax,there are risk factors which can favor the disease. These are ;
- Rheumatic disease
- High blood pressure
- Advanced age (over 40 years)
- Heart diseases
Emergence of Leber’s congenital amaurosis:
As the name says, Leber Congenital Amaurosis is innate (congenital). Therefore it is inherited from parent to child. So far, different genes have been found which are the cause of this type of amaurosis.
In some cases, already genetic information of a parent to lead to amaurosis (autosomal dominant inheritance). In other cases, a child get inherited genes from parents correspond to contract this disease (autosomal recessive inheritance).
Amaurosis investigation and diagnosis
First of all , Doctor asks your detaied medical history and asks you with the following questions:
- Can you see anything?
- Do you have pain?
- Are your both eyes affected?
- Do you suffer from vascular disease?
- Is there any hereditary diseases in your family ?
Then the doctor examines your eyes. For a visual acuity (visual acuity) is determined. For that, you need to recognize certain letters or numbers in a predetermined distance to the wall. Then your doctor will light into your with slit lamp.Then doctor can inspect the various portions of the eye.
There can often be small, bright shimmering deposits in the blood vessels of the retina in a amaurosis fugax which can cause to clog. To confirm the suspicion of this type of amaurosis and possibly to detect impending shortages in the cerebral circulation on time. neurologist and a vascular surgeon should be consulted They examine the arteries that supply blood to the brain and can identify potential confusions.
In congenital amaurosis, the ophthalmologist may collect the following findings in the study:
- Nystagmus (nystagmus)
- Strabismus (crossed eyes)
- No reaction of pupils to light incident
Being blind significantly complicates daily life. Blind people can use various tools to find their way in their enviroment.
- Computer programs that read the information on the screen loudly
- Appliances that communicate through sounds with the person
- a cane, to detect obstacles
- In addition, guide dogs can increase safety on the road, because they also recognize higher ground obstacles and hanging mailboxes which cane misses.
Amaurosis fugax therapy
It is important to ensure long-term circulation of the arteries to supply brain enough blood. Hemodilution is often necessary: the patient gets medications such as aspirin, which prevent the blood clots, narrowing vessels. In addition, a healthy lifestyle is very important in order to avoid a possibly impending stroke.
- Do not smoke cigarettes
- Regular exercise
- A good blood glucose control in diabetes mellitus
- Lowering blood pressure in patients with hypertension
- A healthy diet
Amaurosis Disease progression and prognosis
Depending on the cause of amaurosis and it can remain permanently or disappear after a short time. Amaurosis fugax usually lasts only one to ten minutes. In rare cases, it takes a few hours. it is often caused by the narrowing of cerebral blood vessels.
Children who are concerned with Leber’s congenital amaurosis frequently get born blind or become blind during their first year of life. In some cases, a small part of the visual field remains and patients can learn to read with appropriate visual aids.