What is Balanitis? What is Balanitis?

What is Balanitis?

what-is-balanitisBalanitis is inflammation of the glans which constitutes the final part of the penis. The glans is the final portion of the spongy body which is the smallest of the three columns of erectile tissue found in the penis (the other two are the corpora cavernosa, which are two parallel structures located in the upper part of the penis). When inflammation also affects the foreskin, it is known as balanoposthitis.

The balanitis produces in almost all cases redness of the glans and of the foreskin. Other lesions also may appear like blisters, erosions, whitish or greyish spots depending on the cause that produces it. When there is inflammation, there is pain in the vast majority of cases and may also involve itching and burning. The intensity of these symptoms are variable.

This disease is relatively frequent, because it accounts for around 10-11% of the damages genitourinary in men in adulthood. Also affects up to 3% of children.

The balanitis can be produced by many causes. Its severity is variable, since although the majority of the times it is a transition process and relatively banal that evolves favorably to medical treatment, others can evolve into an invasive cancer, requiring surgery and subsequent follow-up. Therefore, it is important to make the diagnosis as soon as possible, especially if it is suspected that the balanitis is a premalignant lesion.

The balanitis produces in almost all cases redness of the glans and of the foreskin. Other lesions also may appear like blisters, erosions, whitish or greyish spots depending on the cause that produces it. When there is inflammation, there is pain in the vast majority of cases and may also involve itching and burning. The intensity of these symptoms are variable.

This disease is relatively frequent, because it accounts for around 10-11% of the damages genitourinary in men in adulthood. Also affects up to 3% of children.

The balanitis can be produced by many causes. Its severity is variable, since although the majority of the times it is a transition process and relatively banal that evolves favorably to medical treatment, others can evolve into an invasive cancer, requiring surgery and subsequent follow-up. Therefore, it is important to make the diagnosis as soon as possible, especially if it is suspected that the balanitis is a premalignant lesion.


What Causes Balanitis

What Causes BalanitisBalanitis, inflammation of the glans may be caused by a variety of causes such as lack of intimate hygiene in uncircumcised patients, use of soaps, perfumes or preservatives that contain chemicals that irritate the glans. Although there are many other reasons that can cause to balanitis, ranging from ordinary conditions to more serious premalignant lesions. The most important causes of onset of balanitis are:

1- follow Infections:

  • Fungi (Candida albicans)
  • Different types of bacteria (G. Vaginalis, Streptococcus group A, Staphylococcus aureus, T. vaginalis or syphilis)
  • Virus: herpes virus, human papillomavirus (HPV)

2-  opcje binarne bot Dermatological diseases:

  • Lichen sclerosus
  • Balanitis circinata
  • Psoriasis
  • Pemphigus
  • Premalignant lesions, such as Queyrat erythroplasia or Bowen’s disease

3- http://leitensoftware.de/?rrte=flirten-meme&a0e=a3 Other causes of balanitis:

  • Irritants (soaps, perfumes, intimate hygiene creams )
  • Lack of hygiene
  • Contact dermatitis (irritation of the glans when coming into contact with different types of products)
  • Drugs (fixed drug erythema)
  • Injuries
  • Stevens-Johnson syndrome

see url Symptoms and Types of Balanitis

The symptoms and signs of patients who are suffering from balanitis and inflammation of the glans are similar in many cases.However, there are some particularities in function of the cause of the occurrence auses us to talk about different types of balanitis:

It is characterized by the appearance on the glans of an eruption of redness that is accompanied by pain or itching. The typical lesions are macules and papules, some of which may be eroded.

The diagnosis of balanitis by Candida albicans is usually clinical, that is, it is performed by physical examination without the need for diagnostic tests. However, doubts can sometimes exist. In these cases, a potassium hydroxide test or culture is recommended to check the growth of the fungus in the laboratory. When a man presents candidiasis of repeated form it is necessary to rule out the existence of diabetes mellitus.

Can be caused by two types of germs:

trileptal cost Balanitis by anaerobes (germs that do not use oxygen to realize their metabolism): They produce smelly PUS and edema of glans.

Balanitis by aerobes (germs that use oxygen to perform their metabolism): The symptoms are very variable depending on the causative agent which can produce from little redness of the glans until the appearance of fissures and edema in this one.

In both cases, culture or gram staining can be performed to know the causal germ.

This type of balanitis is caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV), mainly HSV-2 and although the prevalence of HSV-1 genital herpes is increasing because of changes in sexual practices. The symptoms of this type of balanitis vary according to whether a primary infection, first non-primary or a recurrence:

  • Primary infection: Primary infection or first episode primary infection is observed in patients who are not exposed to HSV and produces more severe symptoms. After a period of incubation ranging from 2-14 days, papules appear that evolve into vesicles. They take about 10 days to heal, although it depends on each case. In addition, it is usually associated with painful inguinal adenopathies (inflammation of the ganglia).
  • First non-primary episode (asymptomatic first episode): A previous exposure to HSV causes the symptoms to be less intense and longer lasting. The affected area is more limited and healing time is faster.
  • Recurrent infections:This type of balanitis have less intense symptoms the previous two forms. The lesions appear in the same site as in the first episode, but with less extension.

The diagnosis is usually done with the anamnesis (doctor’s interview with the patient) and physical examination. Even in cases in which there is ulceration of the lesions, it is advisable to perform cultivation for herpes simplex. ın addition to serology (study that allows you to check the existence of antibodies in the blood) to rule out syphilis.

The typical lesions are whitish plaques on the glans that sometimes also affect the foreskin. The involvement of the skin that produces lichen sclerosus can cause a narrowing of the foreskin, thus appearing phimosis. As in candidiasic balanitis, lichen sclerosus is often associated with diabetes mellitus.

Although physical examination is very important to guide the diagnosis of lichen sclerosus and  the biopsy of the lesions is the test that allows you to reach the definitive diagnosis.

It consists in the appearance of lesions with white-gray on the glans  with edges of whitish well-defined. It is an inflammatory process that can be associated with other diseases such as Reiter’s syndrome or reactive arthritis (a disease that is characterized by involvement of joints, eyes and urethra).

Although the diagnosis can be reached only with physical examination, a biopsy can often be performed to confirm it. In these patients, screening for sexually transmitted diseases is recommended.

The importance of diagnosing these lesions is that they have a fairly high risk of developing into invasive cancer (around 30% of Queyrat’s erythroplasia and 20% of Bowen’s disease). Lesions have a reddish color, with a velvety appearance, and edges well defined in the erythroplasia of Queyrat.On the other hand, in Bowen’s disease the lesions are usually red plaques.

In addition to physical examination in these cases, biopsy is essential to rule out penile carcinoma.

More frequent in older men, uncircumcised and associated with poor hygiene. It consists of the appearance on the glans of bright red-orange lesions with well delimited edges and multiple reddish-brown speckles.

Lesions can be similar to the erythroplasia of Queyrat (premalignant lesion), so it is advisable to perform a biopsy to confirm the diagnosis.

  • Balanitis due to irritants (allergic)

The form of presentation is very variable, producing from a slight redness of the glans up to great inflammation and swelling of this.It is associated almost to frequent handwashing of the genitals, but only in a small percentage of the cases are caused by causative agents.

In these patients there is usually a history of atopy, they are immunologically more sensitive than the rest of the population to suffer allergic disorders such as asthma, eczema, atopic dermatitis or allergic rhinitis.


clonidine hydrochloride 0.1 mg Diagnosis of Balanitis

The anamnesis (interview of the specialist to the patient to know their symptoms and state) and the medical history are a very important in the diagnosis of balanitis, inflammation of the glans , balanopostitis and inflammation of the foreskin. In some cases, as in the balanitis caused by drugs (erythema fixed drug), an anamnesis directed towards the utilization of medications in the days prior to it is essential to achieve the diagnosis. The same thing happens in the balanitis by irritants or is related to lack of hygiene.

Physical examination is also fundamental, since although the clinical presentation is similar in many cases, there are some peculiarities depending on the cause that causes balanitis. The appearance of the lesions and their characteristics allow the doctor to make a diagnosis of suspicion.

Many times the diagnosis of balanitis can be done with the anamnesis and a thorough physical exploration without the need for the implementation of complementary tests.But there are conditions in which the performance of other tests such as skin biopsy is necessary to rule out premalignant lesions. If there is doubt about the diagnosis, you can also perform a biopsy. Another test is often used culture of a sample obtained from the lesions of the glans or the foreskin.

Performing other tests such as a blood test or urine test, a chest radiograph or other tests that are more specific depends on the suspected diagnosis. They will be performed only if doctor considers to rule out other diseases or associated complications.


use of aspirin 81 mg in pregnancy Balanitis Treatment

Diagnosis and treatmentGeneral measures to treat balanitis include washing the area with warm water or saline a couple of times a day and avoiding soaps or other substances that may be irritating while there is inflammation of the glans.

With a proper hygiene of the penis can prevent many cases of balanitis. For this purpose it is necessary to perform a complete washing of the glans which includes retraction of the glans foreskin to exposeso, you can clean it comfortably. This prevents the accumulation of dirt in the frenulum and glans. Later the area will be dried as it does with the rest of the body. An excessive washing is not good, because it favors the appearance of irritation.

If the cause of the balanitis is a sexually transmitted disease, you have to adopt the basic recommendations given by the primary care physician or specialist physician for your particular case.

On the other hand, if there are other causaitve agents which causes balanitis, it will start a specific treatment.

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