What is Campylobacter infection ?

CampylobacterCampylobacter infection leads to inflammation of the intestine (the so-called. Campylobacteriosis), which is associated with diarrhea. They usually heals by itself.

Campylobacter naturally occur in the intestinal flora of many wild animals suc as pets and farm animals.This is excreted in the feces. People mainly get indirect transmission of the pathogens:People usually take contaminated food of animal origin or contaminated drinking water with Campylobacter. An infection is also through a direct transmission from animals to humans or from person to person possible which is called ‘’Lubrication infection’’.

The risk of infection with Campylobacter infection is high: Even a small number of bacteria (500) is sufficient to cause a disease.

There are known more than 20 different species of Campylobacter bacteria. In industrialized countries have  especially the kind Campylobacter jejuni as pathogens.

A typical Campylobacter infection is manifested by symptoms such as:

  • Diarrhea,
  • Stomach pain
  • Fever
  • Malaise.

Very rarely, Bacteria Campylobacter is responsible for a fetus campylobacter infection. It leads to a severe febrile disease with a variety of conditions such as:

  • Diarrhea
  • Meningitis (meningitis)
  • Inflammation of the endocardium (endocarditis)
  • Joint inflammation (arthritis)

Campylobacter fetus infection occurs mostly in people, where the immune system is already weakened by another disease (for example, HIV infection, tumors).To diagnose a campylobacter infection clearly it is important to  detect of pathogens in fecal specimens and blood samples or other body secretions is needed.

Campylobacter infection usually clears up on its own, treatment with antibiotics is usually not necessary. Instead, a rich fluid and nutrient balance and painkillers can treat the symptoms.

A campylobacter infection usually leads to associated with enteritis (known as Campylobacteriosis). The infection is based mainly on domestic and farm animals, in which the bacteria occur naturally in animal’s intestinal tract. Thus , Campylobacter infection is one of the zoonoses: This refers to diseases that are transmissible from animals to humans.

More than 20 Campylobacter species are known. Not all types cause a disease  to people . In industrialized countries Campylobacter jejuni is the most important trigger of campylobacteriosis, followed by Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter fetus.

Campylobacter fetus is significantly less than other Campylobacter species, however, it causes an infection that is not only limited to the intestine and can have life threatening results.


What Are The Causes of Campylobacter Infection?

Pathogen

A Campylobacter infection is caused by bacteria of the genus Campylobacter. The spirally curved rod-shaped bacteria that can grow only in the presence of oxygen.What Are The Causes of Campylobacter Infection?

Campylobacter bacteria are spread worldwide. Your natural habitat have the pathogen in the intestinal tract of many wild animals (for example, birds and mammals), pets (for example, dogs and cats) and livestock (poultry V. A.) – usually without making them sick.

Campylobacter is not normally present in the intestinal flora in human. Bacteria multiply in the bile and the upper small intestine in an infection. They migrate to the intestinal mucosa and enter the poison (is called Enterotoxin)and this harms the body and it is the on of the cause of occuring diarrhea.

More than 20 different Campylobacter species are known. industrialized countries mostly are infected the type Campylobacter jejuni behind a Campylobacter infection. More important Campylobacter species are for human ;

  • Campylobacter coli
  • Campylobacter lari

Infection with Campylobacter fetus is rare, however it can cause more serious symptoms in addition to enteritis (enteritis). In people who become infected with this bacteria, the immune system is already weakened underlying by a serious disease in most cases, such as ;

  • HIV infection
  • Malignant tumors or
  • Advanced cirrhosis
  • Even newborns can be affected, since with them the immune system is not fully developed.

İnfection

Campylobacter reach mainly and indirectly from to animals to humans. Most common causes are contaminated food of animal origin (for example, insufficient heated poultry meat, raw minced meat, unpasteurized milk) or contaminated drinking water. Even swimming in contaminated lakes can lead to a transfer of bacteria.

Animals and humans with campylobacter infection excrete the bacteria with feces. Transmission is possible through contact with animals to humans or from humans to humans.

It is enouh about 500 germs to trigger a campylobacter infection. By comparison, a Salmonella infection germs are about 10,000 to one million needed. therefore Campylobacter are considered very contagious.

Incubation Period

The incubation period (time between infection and outbreak of the disease) is usually 2 to 5 days, sometimes even a day or up to 10 days in a Campylobacter infection.


Typical Symptoms of Campylobacter Infection

In a typical Campylobacter infection (eg with Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter lari) occur the first symptoms after an average of 2 to 5 days, for example:

  • Malaise,
  • A headache
  • High fever to 40 degrees Celsius.
  • About a quarter of those people also suffers from violent vomiting. Symptoms of preliminary stage of Campylobacter infection are the lasting about one day.

The second phase of the typical Campylobacter infection is characterized by other symptoms: The intestinal inflammation manifested by acute colicky abdominal pain and diarrhea with frequent bowel movements – a total of up to 20 times a day. Diarrheas usually occur watery and later they may be mixed mucus and blood.

Campylobacter fetus leads to a different course of the disease and  therefore it must  be distinguished from the typical Campylobacter infections.

Some spytoms of campylobacter fetus  are ;

  • Meningitis (meningitis)
  • Endocarditis (endocarditis)
  • Joint inflammation (arthritis)
  • Phlebitis (phlebitis)
  • Pus in tissues (abscesses)
  • Infection with Campylobacter fetus during pregnancy can cause miscarriage.

Campylobacter Infection Diagnosis

Campylobacter Infection DiagnosisIn order to provide a reliable diagnosis at a Campylobacter infection, it is necessary to detect the causative agent.An enteritis and other causes can trigger symptoms similar to an infection caused by Campylobacter.

Mainly  species , Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli responsible for bacterial diarrheal diseases of humans. The detection of these pathogens is achieved by using blood or stool samples.

Campylobacter fetus infection is rare but it is diagnosed without any diffuculty with samples from the stool ,blood and cerebrospinal fluid or pus is possible.

Inpatient treatment in the hospital is usually not necessary in a campylobacter infection. If you have been infected with Campylobacter, the chances are good that you can recuperate at home: In 2013, there had been only about one in five people with campylobacteriosis hospitalized for treatment.

Treatment usually aims to relieve the symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease because the disease usually clears up by itself. Therefore to compensate for the costs associated with the watery diarrhea fluid and electrolyte losses: For this , it is important enough to take liquid; you may be given this infusion.

If campylobacter infection is serious, antibiotic therapy may be necessary. When severe infection is considered, if you have high fever or symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease for longer than one week. The effective against Campylobacter antibiotics include the following active ingredients:

  • Erythromycin
  • Ciprofloxacin
  • Aminoglycosides

In very rare cases for campylobacter fetus infection is more likely to take a severe course, which is a quick antibiotic treatment is always recommended. That is: As soon as the suspected infection with Campylobacter fetus is present, it is advisable even without pathogen detection, to start in the first two days of illness with antibiotic therapy.


How to Prevent Campylobacter Infection

You can prevent Campylobacter infection by ensuring adequate hygiene.

  • Wash your hands regularly with soap, particularly after using the toilet and before preparing food!
  • Pay attention to clean
  • Work hygienic in the food preparation
  • Be carefull about fresh or frozen poultry
  • Do not drink contaminated water
  • Consume food that may have well-cooked

Campylobacter are highly contagious. As long as you show symptoms of Campylobacter infection, you should stay home. Again, pay attention to good hygiene – especially in the care of children.

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