Varicose Veins Symptoms and Treatment

What is Varicose VeinsVaricose veins (varices, varicose veins,) are cylindrical Outgrowths or extensions of superficial veins. The blood vessels forms as  balls and tortuosity shimmer bluish through the skin, especially on the legs. Varicose veins can also occur elsewhere on the body, such as in the area of the esophagus. Varicose veins can cause symptoms such as swollen feet and aching legs and bleeding in the esophagus.

Varicose in Legs

Many people suffer from varicose veins in the world. Current estimates indicate about 20 percent of adults at least have slightly different surface veins. Women suffer from varicose veins up to three times more than men. Most often the superficial veins of the legs are affected. The varicose veins are usually first noticed between the 30th and 40th ages of the patient.

Depending on the position and shape of various forms of varicose veins can be distinguished:

Saphenous vein and lateral branch varices: These are varicose veins of medium and large veins. This type of varicose veins are the most common and usually occurs on the inside of the thigh and lower leg.

Perforating varices: The superficial veins are connected via connecting circuits with the deep vein.

Reticular varices: Very small varicose veins of the legs are described as reticular veins. The diameter of these small veins are  maximum of two to four millimeters. Reticular veins are found mainly on the outside of the thigh and lower leg and the knee.

Spider veins

In most cases, varicose veins cause no problems and are very faint.Older people are more limited in their mobility and symptoms often occur. In some cases, drug therapy or surgical removal of varicose veins is then required.

Varicose veins of esophagus (esophageal varices)

Varicose veins of the esophagus (esophageal varices) are much rarer than the varicose veins of the legs. These veins cover  the esophagus by only a thin layer of mucous membrane. Therefore, the esophageal varices can easily bleed and cause life-threatening complications. The varicose veins of the esophagus is usually caused by damage to the liver circulation in scarring of the liver (cirrhosis).

Varicose veins Symptoms

In the early stages varicose veins usually cause no symptoms. Especially the very fine spider veins varices are usually not dangerous. They appear mostly as a harmless red, blue or purple veins in the skin of the legs and cause pain rarely.

Stages of varicose veins

Depending on the severity of the complaints,  varicose veins are divided into different stages:

  • Early stage (stage I): At the beginning of the disease, varicose veins usually do not cause symptoms and are more likely to represent an aesthetic
    problem but many sufferers feel the spider veins or varicose veins as ugly and try to avoid it.
  • Heavy legs (Stage II): In the course of patients who suffer with varicose veins in the legs often feel heavy legs and tension in the legs. The legs get tired quickly and get crapms on leg at night. Some patients also report itching and gets worse in warm conditions. The heat ensures that the blood vessels widen and the blood can flow worse and cause varicose veins pain.
  • Water retention (edema) in the legs (Stage III): Longer the blood congestion in the veins make more stressed and more permeable to the vessel walls. Liquid, proteins (proteins) and blood degradation products (hemosiderin) are pressed from the veins into the surrounding tissue. Chronic congestion of the blood also causes reddish, itchy skin changes (stasis dermatitis).
  • Open leg ulcers (stage IV): Prolonged congestion of thesurrounding tissue is not supplied with sufficient oxygen. It causes skin ulcers and decreased blood flow allows only a very slow healing.

Varicose veins Symptoms


Patients with varices suffer frequently under an additional inflammation of the superficial veins (phlebitis). The chronic congestion causes vessel walls are overused and this leads to easily arise inflammation. A clot forms more easily an can block the blood vessel (thrombosis) on an inflamed vessel wall. It can block a pulmonary vessel – it develops a pulmonary embolism. It is an emergency that needs immediate medical attention to prevent life-threatening complications.

Varicose Veins Causes and Risk Factors

Varicose veins occur when the blood can not flow properly from the veins. The veins must carry blood against gravity back to the heart. The surrounding muscles and the elastic vessel wall of the veins help. In addition, it is called venous valves ensure in the vessels that the blood does not flow back.

Doctors distinguish between primary and secondary varices (varicose veins):

Primary varicose veins

The primary varices account for 70 percent of all varicose veins and occur with no known cause. However, there are some risk factors that favor the occurrence of primary varicose veins: Advanced age, obesity (adiposity) and smoking make the vessel walls of the veins more prone to injury. Hereditary factors, female hormones and a lack of exercise also increase the risk of varicose veins (varicose veins).

  • Inheritance: A connective tissue can be inherited and increases the risk of varicose veins.
  • Hormones: Women get often varicose veins than men. The female sex hormones (estrogens) can often limp connective tissue – which promotes the development of varicose veins. Pregnancy also favors varicose veins of every three pregnant women get varicose veins.
  • Lack of exercise: Physical activity and movement in the legs activates the muscle pump, whereby the vein can pump blood more easily towards to heart. With a long standing or sitting relaxes the muscle pump, and the blood accumulates back easier.

Secondary varicose veins

The secondary varicose veins make up about 30 percent of all cases of varicose veins. They are caused by an acquired obstruction of the veins, usually by a blood clot in the deep vein (venous thrombosis).

Varicose Veins Investigation and Diagnosis

In an initial interview, the doctor will ask about current symptoms and any pre-existing conditions (medical history). Doctor can ask  you questions such as:

  • How old are you?
  • Smoke and if so, how much?
  • Do you have a distension under of your legs?
  • Have you feel like your legs are very heavy at night?
  • How many pregnancies have been you discharged?
  • Do any other your family members suffer from varicose veins?

Then the doctor will physically examine and will look for clues to varicose veins. He will look at both legs and feet in side comparison in order to identify possible swelling, skin discoloration or ulceration.

Varicose Veins Investigation and DiagnosisUltrasonic (duplex sonography)

A special ultrasound (duplex or Doppler sonography) allows close examination of the veins. The duplex sonography can depict blood flow and makes a statement as possible, in which direction the venous blood flows. The physician can also see how veins are transparent and whether the vein valves are damaged or intact. The duplex ultrasound is a simple and cost-effective inspection method, which is considered study of choice for varicose veins.

Angiography of vein (venography)

If a duplex sonography is insufficient or is not available, a pictorial representation of the veins with contrast (venography) may take place.

Varicose Veins Treatment

The goal of treatment of varicose veins is to improve blood flow of the veins and to counteract blood storage. The surrounding tissue must be supported to prevent fluid retention (edema).If venous blood flow works, it lowers the risk for any circulatory disorders and ulcers or leg ulcers.

General measures

  • There are several ways to improve the blood flow to the leg veins, which sufferers can prevent further varicose veins. These include adequate physical activity, elevating the legs and avoidance of extreme heat and cold showers.
  • Movement in everyday life: you can make simple exercies to improve circulation of your veins. Try to avoid prolonged sitting and standing, If it is possible, you should regularly walk around a little to stimulate the blood flow of the veins.
  • Elevating the legs: This helps to transport of the blood from the legs back to the heart. Most patients report that a Elevating the legs particularly decreases the feeling of tension in the legs and looks much better.
  • Avoiding heat: The leg veins dilate and then can no longer adequately convey to the heart the blood. Consequently, the patients suffer from thick, swollen legs. Therefore avoid from extreme heat and even saunas.


There are no specific drugs for varicose veins.

Various ointments ( vegetable-based or with the anticoagulant heparin) can be used externally. It is far but still highly controversial whether these ointments actually penetrate the skin and may exert a protective effect on the leg veins. Many patients find massaging the legs is very beneficial.

Varicose veins Prognosis

With increasing age also increases the risk that a vein develops to varicose veins because the connective tissue loses elasticity with age. However, one can do something about it and thus prevent varicose veins:

  • Regular exercise such as swimming or cycling preventing the formation of varicose veins. It makes for a tight connective tissue and strengthens the veins supportive muscle pump.
  • Encourage the circulation in the legs by daily showers.
  • Avoid prolonged sitting or standing and take regular breaks where you walk around.
  • Pregnant women should consult with suspected varicose their specialist gynecologist and wearing compression stockings.


In very advanced varicose blood flow to the legs is often limited to the extent that bad a healing ulcers (ulcers) form the skin. The poorly healing ulcers are also known as “open legs”

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